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Energy efficiency of external power supplies (EPSs), and curbing excessive power consumption has long been an issue of international concern, and with good reason. In the early 90s EPSs, mainly utilising linear technology, had efficiencies sometimes as low as 50%, and drew unwanted power even on no load. Calculations at the time suggested that unless these issues were addressed, EPSs would account for 30% of total energy consumption within 20 years. Since then, voluntary and then mandatory regulations have grown to ensure higher average energy efficiency of external power supplies. These initiatives have addressed both operating energy efficiency and no-load power drain. While this regulatory development has achieved real reductions in global power consumption, its somewhat explosive expansion has also created challenges for power supply and OEM manufacturers as they endeavour to keep pace with the rate of change. This Guide describes the current state of international legislation, and how…